Please NOTE the content of the following Presentations cannot be used without authors' permissions.
To download and save these files on your local machine, right-click on the link and choose "Save Target As..."

Workshop 3. Effects of climate change on the biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps

Curtis Deutsch (University of Washington, School of Oceanography, USA)
Nianzhi Jiao (Xiamen University, State Key Laboratory
          of Marine Environmental Science, China)
Louis Legendre (Pierre & Marie Curie University, Oceanography Laboratory, France)
Uta Passow (University of California Santa Barbara, Marine Science Institute, USA)

Invited Speakers:
Thorsten Dittmar (University of Oldenburg, Germany)
Marion Gehlen (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de L'Environnement, France)
Phoebe Lam (University of California, Santa Cruz, USA)

The transfer of atmospheric CO2 into the ocean is the largest carbon sink on Earth. The best known mechanisms for the sequestration of marine carbon are three vertical ocean carbon pumps, i.e. solubility, carbonate and soft-tissue or organic (“biological carbon pump”, BCP). The latter two pumps are biologically-driven. The carbonate pump consists in the precipitation of calcium carbonate in surface waters by calcifying organisms followed by sinking of the resulting bio-minerals to depth. The BCP is driven by primary production in the euphotic zone, followed by the transfer of carbon to depth by sinking of particulate organic carbon, by vertical migrations of zooplankton, and by vertical transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by physical processes, like mixing and convection. An additional biological mechanism of ocean carbon sequestration was recently described under the name of microbial carbon pump (MCP). The vertical carbon pumps transport carbon from surface to depth, whereas the MCP transforms short-lived DOC into long-lived DOC. (Technically, the vertical carbon pumps maintain the gradient in total inorganic carbon between surface and deep waters, and the MCP maintains a concentration gradient between short- and long-lived DOC). Carbon is chemically sequestered in long-lived DOC at any depth in the water column. The MCP consists in the microbial transformation of labile organic carbon to refractory DOC (RDOC). In the deep ocean, the huge pool of RDOC accounts for >90% of the total marine organic carbon, and has an average residence time of ~5000 years. As the amount of carbon existing as RDOC is equivalent to the total inventory of atmospheric CO2, changes in some of the processes that regulate the RDOC pool may be important factors in carbon cycling and climate change.

The quantitative roles played by the three biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps (i.e. carbonate pump, BCP, and MCP) is a subject of active research by field oceanographers, experimental biogeochemists, marine ecologists, and carbon-cycle modellers, but these research communities work largely independently. Hence, they often reach conclusions that are quite different. The proposed workshop intends to bring together specialists of field observations (including paleoceanographers), experimentalists and modellers who work on one or more of the three biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps. The objectives of the workshop address the possibility that the three biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps are highly responsive to climate change. Predicting these responses requires an understanding and quantification of the mechanisms that control the responses to environmental forcing.

The workshop will be comprised of four sessions. Sessions 1 to 3 will be dedicated to the three approaches (i.e. field-observational, experimental, and modelling, respectively) used to investigate the biologically driven ocean carbon pumps. Goals within each of these sessions include familiarizing all participants with the different perspectives, identifying the main stumbling blocks and challenges that presently exist, reviewing new results, and discussing developments and actions needed to make progress in coming years. Examples of processes to be discussed include: plankton community structure, stoichiometry, particle dynamics, bacterial remineralization, and production and removal of RDOC. Discussion periods will try to elucidate consensus views among the different approaches on the study of biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps. Session 4 will build on the results of the previous sessions to outline and draft a white paper. This paper will focus on multidisciplinary developments needed to address the responses of the biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps to climate change, and their feedbacks to the climate. The white paper will be submitted for publication in the peer-reviewed literature. Necessary studies to address responses and feedbacks of biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps will be identified, relevant approaches will be described; required national and international tools (e.g. research programs and infrastructures) will be identified; and strategies to achieve these goals will be proposed.

Phoebe J. Lam (Invited)
Observational approaches to the biologically-driven ocean carbon pumps
[pdf, 2 Mb]

Marion Gehlen (Invited)
The future of the ocean carbon pumps: A modeling perspective


Renata Zaccone, Gabriella Caruso, Maurizio Azzaro, Marcella Leonardi, Giovanna Maimone, Luis Monticelli and Rosabruna La Ferla
Seasonal and inter-annual changes of microbial activities in the Mediterranean Sea
[pdf, 0.5 Mb]


Louis Legendre, Richard B. Rivkin, Markus Weinbauer, Lionel Guidi and Julia Uitz
The microbial carbon pump: Potential significance in the globally changing ocean


DanLing Tang, Louis Legendre, QingYang Sun and JinRou Lin
Typhoons impacts on sea-air exchanges of CO2 and DO in the South China Sea

Lionel Guidi, Louis Legendre, Gabriel Reygondeau, Lars Stemmann, Julia Uitz and Stephanie A. Henson
A new look at ocean carbon remineralization for estimating deep-water sequestration
Cynthia H. Pilskaln, Kazuhiro Hayashi, Zhaohui Wang, Joe E. Salisbury and Douglas Vandemark
Carbon pump dynamics and budget for the Northwestern Atlantic shelf
Richard B. Rivkin
Manna from heaven… Role of aeolian nutrient inputs on carbon pumps in the contemporary and future ocean
Maurizio Azzaro and Rosabruna La Ferla
Variability of carbon dioxide production rates in the water masses of Southern Adriatic Pit in the period 1993-2004
[pdf, 0.5 Mb]
Nianzhi Jiao, Yao Zhang, Farooq Azam and Louis Legendre
Emerging needs for standard protocols for core measurements of the marine carbon sinks
[part 1, pdf 1.5 Mb] [part 2, pdf 1.5 Mb]
Daniel J. Mayor, Richard Sanders, Sarah L.C. Giering and Thomas R. Anderson
Microbial gardening in the ocean’s twilight zone: Detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus
Xavier Mari, Markus G. Weinbauer and Louis Legendre
On the impact of soot deposition on carbon pumps
[pdf, 1 Mb]
Markus G. Weinbauer
Role of viral lysis of plankton for the cycling of organic matter
Maurizio Azzaro, Leonardo Langone, Giovanna Maimone and Rosabruna La Ferla
Carbon dioxide production rates in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)
[pdf, 0.5 Mb]
Maurizio Azzaro, Rosabruna La Ferla, Giovanna Maimone, Franco Decembrini, Filippo Azzaro, Carmela Caroppo, Stefano Miserocchi, Federico Giglio, Leonardo Langone, Stefano Aliani, Anderson S. Cabral and Rodolfo Paranhos
Variability of microbial respiratory activity in relation to particulate organic matter over short time scales in a glacial Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)
[pdf, 0.5 Mb]
Rui Zhang
Viral control on bacterioplankton and its ecological and biogeochemical implicates in the deep western Pacific Ocean
Feng-Ping Wang
Roles of archaea in organic matter degradation in marine sediments
Chuanlun Zhang, Haodong Liu, Songze Chen, Chunyan Yang, Wei Xie and Peng Wang
Variability in abundance of the Bacterial and Archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes in water columns of northern South China Sea
Nianzhi Jiao, Farooq Azam and Louis Legendre
Marine Ecosystem Experimental Chamber System (MECS) - A powerful tool for scenario studies on climate and environmental changes
[part 1, pdf 1 Mb] [part 2, pdf 1.5 Mb]
Stephanie A. Henson, Andrew Yool and Richard Sanders
Variability in efficiency of particulate organic carbon export: A model study
[pdf, 1.5 Mb]
Uta Passow
Effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on the biological carbon pump
Jerry Tjiputra and Jorg Schwinger
Sensitivity and regional change of future biological carbon pump to POC flux parameterization
Gianpiero Cossarini, Stefano Querin and Cosimo Solidoro
The continental shelf pump in the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea): Modeling the interaction between physical processes and the biogeochemical carbon cycle
Adrian Burd
The impact of climate change on aggregation and particle flux in the marine environment
Sarah L.C. Giering, Richard Sanders, Richard S. Lampitt, Thomas R. Anderson, Christian Tamburini, Mehdi Boutrif, Mikhail V. Zubkov, Chris M. Marsay, Stephanie A. Henson, Kathryn B. Cook and Daniel J. Mayor
Balancing the carbon budget in the twilight zone
Charlotte Laufkoetter, Meike Vogt and Nicolas Gruber
Drivers of future changes in export efficiency in marine ecosystem models
[pdf, 6 Mb]
K. Allison Smith (K.A.S. Mislan), Charles A. Stock, John P. Dunne and Jorge L. Sarmiento
Particle attenuation simulated using a microbial remineralization model
Ya-Wei Luo and Nianzhi Jiao
Comparison of microbial carbon pump (MCP) in several open ocean stations using an ecosystem model
M. Robin Anderson and Richard B. Rivkin
Cumulative effects of climate change and other anthropogenic pressures on ocean carbon pumpsl
  • Symposium Scope
  • Symposium Structure
  • Scientific Program
  • Venue
  • Organizers
  • Schedule at Glance
  • Detailed Schedule
  • Book of Abstracts
  • Plenary and Invited Speakers
  • Registration
  • Registration Summary
  • Abstract Submission
  • Submitted Abstracts
  • Publication
  • Presentations
  • Financial Support
  • Poster Session
  • Transportation
  • Visa
  • Accommodation
  • Symposium Poster
  • Useful Information
  • Social Events
  • Contact
  • NEWS

    April 27, 2015
    Deadline for Manuscript submission has been changed from May 1 to May 31, 2015.

    Deadline for Abstract Submission, Eearly Registration, and Financial Support Application has been changed from Oct. 31 to Nov. 3, 2014

    Important Dates
  • May 31, 2015
    [extended from May 1]
    anuscript submission deadline
  • March 21–28, 2015
    Symposium and associated workshops
  • December 15, 2014
    Confirm your presentations and attendance
  • December 5, 2014
    Financial Support Grant notification
    - Declined

    December 15, 2014
    Financial Support Grant notification
    - Approved

  • May 12, 2014
    orkshop acceptance notification
  • April 14, 2014
    orkshop proposal submission deadline
  • November 30, 2014
    Abstract acceptance notification
  • November 3, 2014
    bstract submission deadline

    Financial support application deadline
    Early registration deadline
    mportant Dates
    © All content copyright PICES 2014. All Rights Reserved.  Web Site Design by PICES. Contact webmaster: Julia Yazvenko