The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR)
was first deployed in the north Pacific in summer 1997 as a feasibility
study carried out by the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science
CPRs had been deployed for over 70 years in the north Atlantic from Ships-of-Opportunity,
currently managed by SAHFOS, providing a wealth of time series data (Reid
et al., 2003). In contrast, the open ocean areas of the north Pacific
have been historically poorly sampled. Presentations were made at the
1998 annual North Pacific Marine Science Organisation (PICES)
meeting and from this followed a recommendation that the CPR be used to
address the lack of open ocean plankton data. The cost-effectiveness of
ship-of-opportunity sampling, the tried-and-tested nature of the CPR and
the growing recognition that zooplankton respond rapidly to climate change
and also provide the link between changes in the atmosphere and important
upper trophic level populations all provided the impetus for support for
The first proposal was funded by the North Pacific Marine Research program
to collect plankton samples in 2000 and 2001 and a third year, supported
by the North Pacific Research Board (NPRB), followed
on from this. Funding was also obtained in 2002 from the Exxon Valdez
Oil Spill Trustee Council (EVOS) for the transect in
the Gulf of Alaska and since then the NPRB has supported the ~6,500km
transect running east-west across the north Pacific and the EVOS TC has
supported the ~2,500 km north-south Gulf of Alaska transect. From 2000
to 2003 the north-south transect ran from Prince William Sound to California
but was modified in 2004, when that ship was withdrawn, to a new transect
from 2004 between Cook Inlet and Puget Sound. This transect is now in
its 4th year of sampling.
Sampling on the east-west transect was enhanced in 2002 through collaborations
with the Point Reyes Bird Observatory Conservation Science (Dr Bill Sydeman)
and the Canadian Wildlife Service (Dr Ken Morgan) to make simultaneous
observations of marine bird and mammal distributions. In 2004 a CTD was
fitted to the CPR to additionally sample the physical environment (temperature,
salinity and chlorophyll a as fluorescence).
In 2003 collaborative agreements were set up with the Prince William
Sound Science Centre in Valdez and Fisheries and Oceans, Canada (the Institute
of Ocean Sciences in Sidney, BC) to service and unload the CPRs locally.
Initial sample processing is now carried out at IOS and a subset of samples
are analysed within a few weeks of the ship’s return so that some
data can be available quickly, to give an idea of current conditions.
Full, quality controlled data are available within a year of collection.
Although long term funding has not been secured the program is now in
its 8th year of sampling and many studies have resulted from the data
(see below). The program is overseen by the PICES CPR Advisory Panel and
interest and enthusiasm to continue and extend the program is ongoing.
The initial support from PICES and the NPMR program has therefore firmly
set the foundations of a large scale monitoring program for the north
CPR Data available
Abundance I Species List
I Zooplankton Biomass I
Ten regions which reflect the different oceanographic provinces that
are sampled by the two transects have been delineated (e.g. oceanic areas
and shelf regions around the north Pacific rim, see Figure). Monthly averages
of plankton indices can be calculated for each region, though it should
be noted that not all regions have the same intensity of sampling. Data
from the current or most recent year are provisional and have not yet
been quality controlled – expect these data to change once sample
analysis is complete . The following publications contain information
on CPR sampling and sample analysis:
Batten, S.D., Clarke, R.A., Flinkman, J., Hays, G.C., John, E.H., John,
A.W.G., Jonas, T.J., Lindley, J.A., Stevens, D.P., Walne, A.W. (2003)
CPR sampling – The technical background, materials and methods,
consistency and comparability. Progress in Oceanography 58, 193-215
Richardson, A.J., Walne, A.W., John, A.W.G., Jonas, T.D., Lindley, J.A.,
Sims, D.W., Stevens, D., and Witt, M. (2006). Using continuous plankton
recorder data. Progr. Oceanogr. 68, 27-74
These web pages do not include all available CPR data – presence/absence
data are not included, nor are data from samples in between these 10 regions.
All Pacific CPR data are freely available however; for other data enquiries
please contact Sonia Batten, firstname.lastname@example.org
||Coastal British Columbia
||North East Japan Shelf
||Northen Gulf of Alaska
||Offshore British Columbia
||Southern Bering Sea
||Western Gulf of Alaska
||Western North Pacific
/ Material related to the Pacific CPR program
Lindley, J.A., and Batten, S.D. (In review) Distribution and seasonal
cycles of decapod crustacean larvae in Continuous Plankton Records from
the North Pacific Ocean. Submitted to Journal of the Marine Biological
Mackas, D.L., Batten, S.D., and Trudel, M., (In review) Effects on zooplankton
of a warming ocean: recent evidence from the Northeast Pacific. Progress
Batten, S.D. and Freeland, H.J. (In press). Plankton populations at the
bifurcation of the North Pacific Current. Fisheries Oceanography
Kirby, R.R., Lindley, J.A., and Batten, S.D. (in press). Spatial heterogeneity
and genetic variation in the copepod Neocalanus cristatus along two transects
in the North Pacific sampled by the Continuous Plankton Recorder. Journal
of Plankton Research.
Batten, S.D., Hyrenbach, K.D., Sydeman, W.J., Morgan, K.H., Henry, M.F.,
Yen, P.Y. and Welch, D.W. (2006). Characterising Meso-Marine Ecosystems
of the North Pacific. Deep Sea Research II. 53, 270-290.
Batten, S.D and Crawford, W.R. (2005). The influence of coastal origin
eddies on oceanic plankton distributions in the eastern Gulf of Alaska.
Deep Sea Research II, 52, 991-1009.
Lindley, J.A., Batten, S.D., Coyle, K.O and Pinchuk, A.I. (2004). Regular
occurrence of Thysanoessa inspinata (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the Gulf
of Alaska. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 84,
Batten, S.D. and Welch, D.W. (2004). Changes in oceanic zooplankton populations
in the North-east Pacific associated with the possible climatic regime
shift of 1998/1999. Deep Sea Research II, 51, 863-873.
Batten, S.D., Welch, D.W., and Jonas, T. (2003). Latitudinal differences
in the duration of development of Neocalanus plumchrus copepodites. Fisheries
Oceanography, 12 (3), 201-208.
Welch, D. W. (2000). PICES Climate Change and Carrying Capacity program,
MONITOR task team and the CPR initiative. Report of the 1999 MONITOR task
team, PICES Report 15
Batten S.D. (2001). Continuous Plankton Measurements in subarctic Pacific.
Report of the 2000 MONITOR workshop. PICES Report, 17.
Batten, S.D. and Welch, D.W. (2001) The Continuous Plankton Recorder
survey of the north Pacific. Proceedings of the PICES/CoML/IPRC Workshop
on Impact of Climate Variability on Observation and Prediction of Ecosystem
and Biodiversity Changes in the North Pacific. PICES Report, 18.
Welch, D.W. and Batten, S.D. (2000) Climate Change, Global Warming, and
the PICES mandate-- The Need for Improved Monitoring. PICES Press, 8,
Freeland, H.J. and Batten, S.D. (2002). The state of the eastern North
Pacific since spring 2001. PICES Press, 10, 10-11.